Vol 5 No 2 (2022): Vietnam Journal of Agricultural Sciences

Issue Information:

Starting in 2018, VJAS is set to launch a full English version of VJAS and publish quarterly both online and in print with the ISSN 2588-1299. Each issue will contain 5-10 articles, with each article being approximately 5000-8000 words. All submissions will be independently refereed by editorial board members and will undergo rigorous peer-review following international standards from at least two assigned peer reviewers (including one Vietnamese reviewer and one foreign reviewer) who come from universities and research institutes in Vietnam and other countries around the world. The aim of VJAS is to be indexed in ISI/Scopus lists within four to six years from its first published issue (September 2018).

The English version of VJAS is devoted to publishing papers, both scientific articles and reviews or mini-reviews, from all areas related to agriculture disciplines, especially those focusing on crop science, plant protection, animal science, veterinary medicine, aquaculture, agricultural mechanical and electrical engineering, soil science and plant nutrition, ecology and environment, biotechnology, food technology, economics and rural development, and information technology in agriculture, etc.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31817/vjas.2022.5.2

Published: 2022-06-27

Genetic Divergence of Cultivated Rice Varieties in North Vietnam for Grain Quality Traits Using D2 Cluster Analysis

Genetic divergence of cultivated rice varieties in North Vietnam for grain quality traits using D2 cluster ana

by Nguyen Ba Thang
https://doi.org/10.31817/vjas.2022.5.2.01
Received: Oct 21, 2021 / Published: Jun 27, 2022
Abstract: The study was carried out with twenty-four genotypes of rice during the Spring season, 2020 in Hanoi, Vietnam in order to exploit the attributes and divergence of quality properties from existing rice cultivars in North Vietnam. The rice genotypes were characterized based on ten quality parameters of milling, physical appearance and physiochemical characters using Mahalanobis D2 statistic. D2 analysis allocated the 24 genotypes into eight clusters, of which cluster I was
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the largest with 12 genotypes. The clustering showed the random distribution of genotypes into different clusters indicating that the origin and release duration were not related to the genetic diversity of grain quality. Among different traits, amylose content, length/width ratio and gel consistency were identified as topmost contributors in total divergence. Cluster I possessed a maximum intra-cluster value of 296.34 and the maximum inter-cluster distance was recorded between cluster IV and VI (2247.39) succeeded by cluster I and VI (2245.94) designing the members presented in these clusters can be exploited as potential donors in a breeding program to result good physicochemical quality traits in rice.

Impacts of Climate Change on Hazelnut (Corylus avellane L.) Cultivation in Bhutan

Impact of climate change on hazelnut cultivation in Bhutan

by Arjun Nepal, Sonam Tashi, Rekha Chhetri, Tshering Dorji, Ugyen Dorji, Sunil Sapkota
https://doi.org/10.31817/vjas.2022.5.2.02
Received: Nov 18, 2021 / Published: Jun 27, 2022
Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the factors contributing to the spatial distribution of European hazelnut (Corylus avellane L.) in Bhutan and determine the suitable areas for cultivation of the crop in the near future (2040-2060) and distant future (2060-2080) under different climate scenarios of Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP)  2.6 and RCP 4.5 in Bhutan. The environmental layers were obtained from WorldClim and processed in ArcGIS and R software prior to running the model
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in MaxENT. The multicollinearity test showed six bioclimatic factors and three topographical factors contributing to the distribution of European hazelnut in Bhutan. The findings indicated that approximately 10,744.8 sq. km is potential for hazelnut crop cultivation in Bhutan, with Wangduephodrang District harboring the highest area of 1,227.9 sq. km (11.4%) and Gasa district the least at 130 sq. km. The primary factors affecting climate suitability of European hazelnut were elevation, contributing 87.9%, followed by Bio3 (3.7%), BIO2 (3%), and Bio1 (2.5%), and the least factors were Bio15 and aspect at 0.1% each. The model showed that the most suitable elevation for the growth of hazelnut ranges from 1500-1900 masl. The suitability area for the crop projected under the RCP 2.6 and RCP 4.5 scenarios showed a decline in the near future (2040-2060) in the southern part of the country and a slight increase in the distant future (2061-2080) in Central, Eastern, and Western Bhutan. Therefore, there is an urgent need for climate risk assessment, community-based mitigation measures, and spatial monitoring techniques on agriculture crops in Bhutan.

Genetic Diversity of Chanos Chanos (Forsskål, 1775) from Natural Populations in Vietnam

Genetic diversity of Chanos chanos (Forsskål, 1775) from natural populations in Vietnam

by Vu Thi Trang, Tran Thi Thuy Ha, Tran Thi Kim Ngan, Nguyen Dinh Vinh, Pham Hong Nhat, Vu Thi Huyen
https://doi.org/10.31817/vjas.2022.5.2.03
Received: Jul 14, 2021 / Published: Jun 27, 2022
Abstract: The genetic diversity of five natural populations of milkfish (Chanos chanos) collected in Nghe An, Quang Binh, Binh Dinh, Phu Yen, Khanh Hoa provinces in Vietnam was examined using COI gene sequence analysis. Twelve haplotypes were noted from a total of 50 sequences along with 12 variable sites and 6 parsimony informative sites. The Quang Binh milkfish population had the highest haplotype (0.889 ± 0.060) and nucleotide diversities (0.00301 ± 0.00049). Overall, haplotype and nucleotide
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diversities were 0.804 ± 0.036 and 0.00212 ± 0.00026, respectively. Genetic differentiation (FST) was high between the milkfish populations of Nghe An – Quang Binh (0.21744) and Nghe An - Phu Yen (0.26215). Haplotype network analysis indicated that milkfish populations shared common haplotypes and each population had its own private haplotypes. Population structure and demographic expansion were not evident for all populations except for Quang Binh. This is the first principal endeavor to understand genetic information of milkfish in Vietnam, thereby providing information for scientists, managers, and the general public to establish timely strategies to explore, protect, and develop milkfish genetic resources in the future.

Fairness and Transparency in Payment for Forest Ecosystem Services Programs in Vietnam: A Community Based Evaluation

Fairness and transparency in payment for forest ecosystem services programs in Vietnam: A community based eval

by Cao Truong Son, Nguyen Thi Huong Giang, Nguyen Hai Nui, Nguyen Thanh Lam, Tran Duc Vien
https://doi.org/10.31817/vjas.2022.5.2.04
Received: Mar 12, 2021 / Published: Jun 27, 2022
Abstract: Payment for forest environmental services (PFES) has been widely implemented in Vietnam for enhancing the reforestation and conservation of natural resources. However, fairness and transparency in the implementation of PFES programs have not been given due attention. In order to gather the community's opinions about the fairness and transparency of PFES's implementation, two case studies of direct and indirect payment programs in Bac Kan Province were selected to investigate. In this study, a
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five-point scale to rank the levels of "importance" and "implementation" of eight criteria of fairness and five criteria of transparency were used. There were 167 people who participated in the evaluation process through a questionnaire. The results pointed out that the community highly evaluated fairness and transparency in terms of "importance". Nevertheless, the "implementation" of these criteria had lower evaluation points. In comparing the evaluation results between the service providers and buyers, there were no statistically significant differences in terms of the "important" criteria. However, the difference between providers’ and buyers' evaluations regarding "implementation" were significant, with the mean values of the providers' being relatively higher than the buyers'. In addition, the analyses also found that participants in the direct program evaluated fairness and transparency higher than those in the indirect program. Finally, we state that policymakers and other stakeholders should include fairness and transparency criteria in designing the evaluation framework of PFES programs in Vietnam in order to promote more participation of people and improve the sustainability of PFES programs.

Using Multivariate Statistical Methods to Identify Key Surface Water Pollutants in the Dry Season in a Coastal Province, Vietnam

Multivariate statistical methods to identify surface water pollutants in the dry season in a coastal province

by Nguyen Thanh Giao, Huynh Thi Hong Nhien
https://doi.org/10.31817/vjas.2022.5.2.05
Received: Sep 20, 2021 / Published: Jun 27, 2022
Abstract: This study was conducted to analyze water quality in a coastal province of Vietnam. Multivariate statistical methods, namely cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were utilized. Twelve parameters, namely pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), total suspended solids (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrite (N-NO2), nitrate (N-NO3), ammonium (N-NH4+), orthophosphate
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(P-PO43−), chloride (Cl), iron (Fe), and coliforms were collected from ten locations in the 2020 dry season. The results showed that surface water was polluted by TSS, organic matters, nutrients, salinity, and coliforms compared to the national technical regulations on surface water quality (QCVN 08-MT: 2015/BTNMT). Cluster analysis results classified the original ten sampling locations into three groups due to BOD, COD, TSS, N-NH4+, N-NO2, coliforms, and salinity. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that three principal components (PCs) could explain 84.5% of the variance of surface water quality parameters in the study area. Moreover, pH, TSS, DO, BOD, COD, N-NH4+, N-NO2, N-NO3-, P-PO43−, coliforms, and Cl were the key variables that influenced surface water quality in the dry season. The findings in this study can provide useful information for policymakers in developing programs of surface water quality management and protection.

An Assessment of the Economic Efficiency of Swine Farms Applying BioSecurity Practices in Bac Ninh Province, Vietnam

An assessment of the economic efficiency of swine farms applying biosecurity practices in Bac Ninh province,VN

by Le Thanh Ha, Lai Phuong Thao, Nguyen Xuan Hoa, Do Quang Giam
https://doi.org/10.31817/vjas.2022.5.2.06
Received: Sep 21, 2021 / Published: Jun 27, 2022
Abstract: The research focused on evaluating the economic efficiency of swine farms applying biosecurity practices in Bac Ninh Province. Our study surveyed 143 pig farms in Bac Ninh province. The ordinal logit regression model was employed to estimate the factors affecting the level of biosecurity practices. Moreover, the semi-log regression model was used to examine the influence of some factors affecting the profitability of pig farms. The results showed that biosecurity practices had a significant
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impact on the economic efficiency of livestock farms by helping livestock farms increase their economic efficiency, reducing the mortality rate of animals, and reducing the rate of abandonment of farms.  The factors affecting the level of biosecurity application on the farms included the gender, experience, and education of the farm owner, and the livestock scale. The results aslo expressed a negative relationship between the economic efficiency of the farm and seeding costs, electricity and water costs, feeding costs, labor costs, and veterinary medicine costs, and a positive relationship between the economic efficiency and selling price as well as between the livestock scale and biosecurity application. Finally, some appropriated solutions could be recommended for the improvement of the economic efficiency of swine farms applying biosecurity practices.

The Impacts of Social and Economic Determinants on Poverty: An Empirical Study on Southeast Asia

The impacts of social and economic determinants on poverty: An empirical study on Southeast Asia

by Nguyen Anh Tru
https://doi.org/10.31817/vjas.2022.5.2.07
Received: Sep 2, 2021 / Published: Jun 27, 2022
Abstract: The article attempted to examine the influences of social and economic determinants on poverty in seven Southeast Asian countries, namely Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand, Timor-Leste, and Vietnam, between 1996 and 2013 using a panel dataset. It was empirically found that the average GDP per capita and Gini index contributed to poverty reduction in Southeast Asian countries. The results also addressed that the population and poverty gap had positive impacts on the rate of
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the poverty headcount in the region. Policies were recommended to accelerate economic growth, reduce poverty, and achieve sustainable development in Southeast Asia. First, economic growth should be fostered since it assists in reducing poverty in Southeast Asian countries. Second, although the growth of population provides the labor forces to the economy, population growth in Southeast Asia should be carefully controlled since it increases poverty in the region. Third, an increase in the number of rich inhabitants in the society should be encouraged because it can mitigate poverty in the region. Finally, policies in redistributing income as well as in narrowing down income inequality in each society should be considered by the governments because these contribute to poverty reduction in the region.