Effects of Cover Methods and Nitrogen Levels on the Growth and Yield of Tomato

Nguyen Thi Loan 1 and Tran Thi My Can 2

1Faculty of Agronomy, Vietnam National University of Agriculture, Hanoi 131000, Vietnam
2Center for Flowers, Ornamental Research and Development, Fruit and Vegetable Research Institute, Hanoi 131000, Vietnam
Received: Nov 17, 2020 /
Published: Aug 10, 2021

Main Article Content

Full-Text | pdf


To study the effects of cover methods and nitrogen (N) levels on the growth and yield components of tomato Cv. Pear F1, field experiments with a 4x3 factorial design were conducted in the 2019 spring and winter seasons using a randomized complete block design with three replications. The cover methods included four treatments: bare soil (BS), black plastic mulch (BPM), transparent polypropylene row cover (RC), and a combination of BPM and RC (BPMRC) with the RC removed approximately 30 days after transplanting. Nitrogen (N) was applied at three levels (150, 180, and 210 kg N ha-1). Using BPM and RC generally led to an increased air temperature, air humidity, soil moisture, and soil temperature compared to the BS treatment. Higher N rates (180 and 210 kg N ha-1) did not result  in different tomato fruit sizes and fruit weights but positively increased fruit yield and quality (Brix values and fruit dry weight) as compared to the 150 kg N ha-1 addition. The cover methods positively affected the yield components and fruit yield of tomato as well as the fruit characteristics compared to the BS treatment. Using cover materials (BPM and RC) combined with a higher N application significantly increased the yield attributes and fruit yield. The highest fruit yield was achieved under the mulching treatment by black plastic (BPM treatment) combined with a 210 kg N ha-1 application, resulting in 50.90 tons ha-1 in the spring and 58.27 tons ha-1 in the winter.

Keywords: Tomato yield, black plastic mulching, row cover, nitrogen levels

Article Details

How to Cite
Loan, N., & Can, T. (2021). Effects of Cover Methods and Nitrogen Levels on the Growth and Yield of Tomato. Vietnam Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 4(2), 1021-1033. https://doi.org/10.31817/vjas.2021.4.2.03


    Aguyoh J., Taber H. G. & Lawson V. (1999). Maturity of fresh market sweet corn with direct – seeded plants, transplants, clear plastic mulch and row cover combinations. HortTechnology. 9(3): 420-426.
    Aman S. & Rab A. (2013). Response of tomato to nitrogen levels with or without humic acid. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture. 29(2): 181-186.
    Beyene N. & Mulu T. (2019) Effect of Different Level of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Growth, Yield and Yield Component of Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill.) at West Showa Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia. Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 8(5): 100-104.
    Dao Xuan Canh (2013). The results of the selecting hybrid tomatoes in northern province of Vietnam serving internal consumption and export. The First National Conference of Crop Science on September 5, 2013, Hanoi, Vietnam): 490-498 (in Vietnamese).
    Diaz – Perez J. C. & Batal K. D. (2002). Colored plastic film mulches affect tomato growth and yield via changes in root – zone temperature. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science. 127(1): 127-135.
    Elia A., Conversa G., Rotonda P. L. & Montemurro F. (2007). Nitrogen level effect on yield and quality of fertigated processing tomato in Southern Italy. Acta Horticulturae. 758: 235-240.
    Erdal L., Ertek A., Senyigit U. & Koyuncu M. A. (2007). Combined effects of irrigation and nitrogen on some quality parameters of processing tomato. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 3: 57-62.
    Etissa E., Dechassa N., Alamirew T., Alemayehu Y. & Desalegn L. (2013) Growth and yield components of tomato as influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer applications in different growing seasons. Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 24(1): 57-77.
    Fan Y., Ding R., Kang S., Hao X., Du T., Tong L. & Li S. (2017). Plastic mulch decreases available energy and evapotranspiration and improves yield and water use efficiency in an irrigated maize cropland. Agricultural Water Management. 179: 122-131.
    Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2020). FAOSTAT on crop production. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC on January 10, 2019.
    Filipovíc V., Romíc D., Romíc M., Borosíc J., Filipovíc L., Mallmann F. J. K. & Robinson D. A. (2016). Plastic mulch and nitrogen fertigation in growing vegetables modify soil temperature, water and nitrate dynamics: experimental results and a modeling study. Agricultural Water Management. 176: 100-110.
    Gordon G. G., Foshee W. G., Reed S. T., Brown J. E., Vison E. & Woods F. M. (2008). Plastic mulches and row cover on growth and production of summer squash. International Journal of Vegetable Science. 14(4): 322-338.
    Helaly A. A., Goda Y., Adb El – Rehim A. S., Mohamed A. A. & El-Zeiny O. A. H. (2017) Effect of polyethylene mulching type on the growth, yield and fruits quality of Physalis pubescens. Advances in Plants and Agriculture Research. 6(5): 154-160.
    Hernandez J., Soriano T., Morales M. I. & Castilla N. (2004). Row covers for quality improvement of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. Pekinensis). New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science. 32(4): 379-388.
    Ibarra-Jiménez L., Quezada-Martín M. R. & Rosa- Ibarra M. D. L. (2004). The effect of plastic mulch and row covers on the growth and physiology of cucumber. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture. 44: 91-94.
    Kader M. A., Senge M., Mojid M. A. & Nakamura K. (2017). Mulching type – induced soil moisture and temperature regimes and water use efficiency of soybean under rain – fed condition in central Japan. International Soil and Water Conservation Research. DOI: 10.1016/j.iswcr.2017.08.001.
    Kalisz A., Cebula S., Siwek P., Sekara A., Grabowska A. & Gil J. (2014). Effects of row covers using non – woven fleece on the yields, rate of bolting and quality of heading Chinese cabbage in early spring cultivation. The Japanese Society of Horticultural Science. 83(2): 133-141.
    Kebede A. & Woldewahid G. (2014). Fruit quality and net income response of tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill.) to different levels of nitrogen and plant population in Alamata, Ethiopia. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research. 3(9): 125-128.
    Kirimi J. K., Itulya F. M. & Mwaja V. N. (2011). Effects of nitrogen and spacing on fruit yield of tomato. African Journal of Horticultural Science. 5: 50-60.
    Mehmood S., Rasool T., Iqbal M., Iqbal M., Haq I. & Sohail M. (2015). Effect of plastic mulch and different irrigation practices on soil properties, nutrient contents and their availability in Maize. Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Sciences. 3: 35-41.
    Moreno D., Víllora G., Hernández J., Castilla N. & Romeo M. L. (2002). Yield and chemical composition of Chinese cabbage in relation to thermal regime as influenced by row covers. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science. 127(3): 343-348.
    Muleke E. M., Saidi M. Itulya F. M., Martin T. & Ngouajio M. (2014) Enhancing Cabbage (Brassica oleraceae Var capitata) yields and quality through microclimate modification and physiological improvement using agronet covers. Sustainable Agriculture Research. 3(2): 24-34.
    Nair A. & Ngouajio M. (2010) Integrating row covers and soil amendments for organic cucumber production: Implications on crop growth, yield, and microclimate. HortScience. 45: 566-574.
    Ogundare S. K., Babatunde I. J. & Etukudo O. O. (2015). Response of tomato variety (Roma F) yield to different mulch materials and staking in Kabba, Kogi State, Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Studies. 3(2): 61-71.
    Okimura M & Hanada T. (1993). Effects of row cover on the growth of leafy vegetables in summer in the subtropical zone of Japan. Japan agricultural research quarterly. 26: 294-303.
    Parisi M., Giordano L., Pentangelo A., Onofrio D. & Villari G. (2006). Effects of different levels of nitrogen fertilization on yield and fruit quality in processing tomato. Acta Horticulturae. 700: 129-132.
    QCVN 01 – 70: 2011/BNNPTNT (National technical regulation on testing for distinctness uniformity and stability of tomato varieties). Retrieved from http://pvpo.mard.gov.vn/DetailInfomation.aspx?InfomationID=IN00000322 on February 2, 2019 (in Vietnamese).
    Rajablariani H., Hassankhan F. & Rafezi R. (2012). Effect of colored plastics mulches on yield of tomato and weed biomass. International Journal of Environmental Science and Development. 3(6): 590-593.
    Rashid A., Rab A., Mohammad H., Ali J., Shahab M., Jamal A., Rahman A. & Ali M. (2016). Effect of row spacing and nitrogen levels on the growth and yield of tomato under walk – in polythene tunnel condition. Pure and Applied Biology. 5(3): 426-438.
    Tarara J. M. (2000). Microclimate modification with plastic mulch. HortScience. 35(2): 169-180.
    Torres – Olivar V., Villegas – Torees O. G., Dominguez – Patino M. L. & Sotlo – Nava H. (2014). Role of nitrogen and nutrients in crop nutrition. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology. 4: 29-37.
    Vietnam Agriculture Extension Center (2012). Tomato cultivation techniques. Retrieved from http://www.khuyennongvn.gov.vn/vi-VN/khoa-hoc-cong-nghe/khcn-trong-nuoc/ky-thuat-trong-va-cham-soc-cay-ca-chua_t114c40n3430 on February 2, 2019 (in Vietnamese).
    Wang X., Fan J., Xing Y., Xu G., Wang H., Deng J., Wang H., Zhang F., Li P. & Li Z. (2019). The effects of mulch and nitrogen fertilizer on the soil environment of crop plants. Advances in Agronomy. 153: 12-173.
    Wang X., Wang N., Xing Y. & Ben E. C. M. (2018a). Synergetic effects of plastic mulching and nitrogen application rates on grain yield, nitrogen uptake and translocation of maize planted in the Loess Plateau of China. Scientific Reports. 8(1): 1-13.
    Wang X., Wang N., Xing Y., Yun J. & Zhang H. (2018b). Effects of plastic mulching and basal nitrogen application depth on nitrogen use efficiency and yield in maize. Frontiers in Plant Science. 9: 1-11.
    Warner J., Zhang T. Q. & Hao X. (2004). Effects of nitrogen fertilization on fruit yield and quality of processing tomatoes. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 84: 865-871.
    Waterer D. R. (1993). Influence of planting date and row covers on yield and economic value of muskmelons. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 73: 281-288.