1Center of Aquaculture Biotechnology, Research Institute for Aquaculture No.1, Bac Ninh 222100, Vietnam
2Faculty of Junior high school, Nghe An College of Education, Nghe An 43100, Vietnam
3School of Agriculture and Resources, Vinh Universty, Nghe An 43100, Vietnam
Main Article Content
The genetic diversity of five natural populations of milkfish (Chanos chanos) collected in Nghe An, Quang Binh, Binh Dinh, Phu Yen, Khanh Hoa provinces in Vietnam was examined using COI gene sequence analysis. Twelve haplotypes were noted from a total of 50 sequences along with 12 variable sites and 6 parsimony informative sites. The Quang Binh milkfish population had the highest haplotype (0.889 ± 0.060) and nucleotide diversities (0.00301 ± 0.00049). Overall, haplotype and nucleotide diversities were 0.804 ± 0.036 and 0.00212 ± 0.00026, respectively. Genetic differentiation (FST) was high between the milkfish populations of Nghe An – Quang Binh (0.21744) and Nghe An - Phu Yen (0.26215). Haplotype network analysis indicated that milkfish populations shared common haplotypes and each population had its own private haplotypes. Population structure and demographic expansion were not evident for all populations except for Quang Binh. This is the first principal endeavor to understand genetic information of milkfish in Vietnam, thereby providing information for scientists, managers, and the general public to establish timely strategies to explore, protect, and develop milkfish genetic resources in the future.
Abdul-Muneer P. M. (2014). Application of microsatellite markers in conservation genetics and fisheries management: recent advances in population structure analysis and conservation strategies. Genetics Research International. DOI: 10.1155/2014/691759.
Adiputra Y. T., Chuang J. L. & Gwo J. C. (2012). Genetic diversity of Indonesia milkfish (Chanos chanos) using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. African Journal of Biotechnology. 11(13): 3055-3060. DOI: 10.5897/AJB10.1985.
Adiputra Y. T., Hsu T. H. & Gwo J. C. (2011). Genetic relationship of milkfish (Chanos chanos) from Indonesia, the Philippines and Taiwan using mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences. Journal of Applied Ichthyology. 27(4): 1100-1103. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0426.2010.01629.x.
Bagarinao T. U. (1991). Biology of milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10862/650 on March 19, 2021.
Bay L. K., Choat J. H., van Herwerden L. & Robertson D. R. (2004). High genetic diversities and complex genetic structure in an Indo-Pacific tropical reef fish (Chlorurus sordidus): Evidence of an unstable evolutionary past? Marine Biology. 144(4): 757-767. DOI: 10.1007/s00227-003-1224-3.
Beveridge M. C. M. & Haylor G. S. (1998). Warm-water farmed fish. In: Black K. D. & Pickering A. D. (Eds.). Biology of farmed fish, Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press: 383-406.
Bingpeng X., Heshan L., Zhilan Z., Chunguang W., Yanguo W. & Jianjun W. (2018). DNA barcoding for identification of fish species in the Taiwan Strait. PloS one 13(6): e0198109-e0198109. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0198109.
Excoffier L. & Lischer H. E. (2010). Arlequin suite ver 3.5: a new series of programs to perform population genetics analyses under Linux and Windows. Molecular Ecology Resources. 10(3): 564-567. DOI: 10.1111/j.1755-0998.2010.02847.x.
Folmer O., Black M., Hoeh W., Lutz R. & Vrijenhoek R. (1994). DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates. Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology. 3(5): 294-299. PMID: 7881515.
Forster M., Forster P. & Watson J. (2007). NETWORK: a software for population genetics data analysis. Fluxus Technology Ltd, Clare. Retrieved from https://www.fluxus-engineering.com/sharenet.htm on July 10, 2021.
Fu Y. X. (1997). Statistical tests of neutrality of mutations against population growth, hitchhiking and background selection. Genetics. 147(2): 915-925. Retrieved from https://www.genetics.org/content/147/2/915.short on February 2, 2019.
Gaither R. G., Robert J. T., Robertson D. R., Planes S. & Bowen B. W. (2010). Genetic evaluation of marine biogeographical barriers: perspectives from two widespread Indo-Pacific snappers (Lutjanus kasmira and Lutjanus fulvus). Journal of Biogeography. 37(1): 133-147. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2699.2009.02188.x.
Grant W. A. S. & Bowen B. W. (1998). Shallow population histories in deep evolutionary lineages of marine fishes: insights from sardines and anchovies and lessons for conservation. Journal of Heredity. 89(5): 415-426. DOI: 10.1093/jhered/89.5.415.
Grant W. S., Chang I. Z., Tokimasa K. & Gunnar S. (1987). Lack of genetic stock discretion in Pacific Cod (Gadus macrocephalus). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 44(3): 490-498. DOI: 10.1139/f87-061.
Hobbs J-PA., Herwerden L. V., Jerry D. R., Jones G. P. & Munday P. L. (2013). High genetic diversity in geographically remote populations of endemic and widespread coral reef angelfishes (genus: Centropyge). Diversity. 5(1): 39-50. DOI: 10.3390/d5010039.
Le Van Sinh, Phan Thanh Viet, Tran Van Phuc, Nguyen Khac Tung Tien & Pham Thanh Nhan (2005). Research on technical solutions for rearing fry milkfish in the cement tank from wild caught fish. Center for Fishery Extension and Fisheries Technology Research and Application in Binh Dinh (in Vietnamese).
Leis J. M. & Reader S. E. (1991). Distributional ecology of milkfish, Chanos chanos, larvae in the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea near Lizard Island, Australia. Environmental Biology of Fishes. DOI: 10.1007/bf02027983.
Librado P. & Rozas J. (2009). DnaSP v5: a software for comprehensive analysis of DNA polymorphism data. Bioinformatics. 25(11): 1451-1452. DOI:10.1093/bioinformatics/btp187.
Nguyen Thi My Dung, Nguyen Phu Hoa & Phan Quynh Tram (2020). Study on morphological characteristics of milkfish population Chanos chanos (Forsskal, 1775) in the southeastern sea of Vietnam. Vietnam Journal of Science, Technology and Engineering. 62(9): 53-58 (in Vietnamese).
Ravago-Gotanco R. G. & Juinio-Meñez M. A. (2004). Population genetic structure of the milkfish, Chanos chanos, based on PCR-RFLP analysis of the mitochondrial control region. Marine Biology. 145(4): 789-801. DOI:10.1007/s00227-004-1372-0.
Rebijith K. B., Asokan R. & Kumar N. K. K. (2016). Molecular identification of Mealybugs. New Delhi: Springer India. In: Mani M. & Shivaraju C. (Eds.). Mealybugs and their Management in Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: 75-86.
Romana-Eguia M. R. R., Santos B. S., Ikeda M., Basiao Z. U. & Kijima A. (2018). Genetic assessment of milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) stocks based on novel short tandem repeats for marker-aided broodstock management. Aquaculture Research. 49(4): 1557-1568. DOI:10.1111/are.13610.
Sambrook J. & Russell D. (2001). Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
Santos B. S., Basiao Z. U. & Quilang J. P. (2019). Genetic diversity and patterns of demographic expansion in natural populations of milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forsskål, 1775), in the Philippines. Mitochondrial DNA Part A. 30(2): 312-324. DOI: 10.1080/24701394.2018.1504931.
Santos B.S., Romana-Eguia M. R. R., Basiao Z. U. & Ikeda M. (2015). Development and characterization of nine novel microsatellite markers for the milkfish Chanos chanos. Conservation Genetics Resources. 7: 451-453. DOI: 10.1007/s12686-014-0393-3.
SriHari M., Abidi Z. J. & Ayyathurai K. (2019). Lack of genetic differentiation in milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forsskål, 1775), revealed by mitochondrial ATPase 6/8 genes. Mitochondrial DNA Part A. 30(3): 511-516. DOI: 10.1080/24701394.2019.1568425.
Ta Thi Binh (2015). The task of preserving the genome funded by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development: The first step of collecting, storing and evaluating the source of milkfish (Chanos chanos) in the North Central coastal area. The project code: B2015-15-10GEN (in Vietnamese).
Tajima F. (1989). Statistical method for testing the neutral mutation hypothesis by DNA polymorphism. Genetics. 123(3): 585-595. Retrieved from https://www.genetics.org/content/123/3/585.short on May 3, 2019.
Thompson J. D., Higgins D. G. & Gibson T. J. (1994). CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Research. 22(22): 4673-4680. DOI: 10.1093/nar/22.22.4673.
Ward R. D., Zemlak T. S., Innes B.H., Last P. R. & Hebert P. D. (2005). DNA barcoding Australia's fish species. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 360(1462): 1847-1857. DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2005.1716.
Winans G. A. (1980). Geographic Variation in the Milkfish Chanos Chanos. I. Biochemical Evidence. Evolution. 34(3): 558-574. DOI: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.1980.tb04844.x.
Winters K. L., van Herwerden L., Choat J. H. & Robertson D. R. (2010). Phylogeography of the Indo-Pacific parrotfish Scarus psittacus: isolation generates distinctive peripheral populations in two oceans. Marine Biology. 157(8): 1679-1691. DOI: 10.1007/s00227-010-1442-4.