Supplemental Effects of Self-extracted Organic Nutrient Solution on the Growth and Yied of Water Spinach (Ipomoea Aquatic F.) in an Aquaponic System

Nguyen Thi Ai Nghia 1 , Nguyen Thi Ngoc Dinh 1 , Nguyen Hong Hanh 1 and Do Thi Huong 1

1Faculty of Agronomy, Vietnam National University of Agriculture, Hanoi 131000, Vietnam
Received: Dec 6, 2021 /
Revised: Sep 30, 2022 /
Accepted: Sep 22, 2022 /
Published: Sep 30, 2022

Main Article Content

Full-Text | pdf


Aquaponics combines two technologies, recirculating aquaculture systems and hydroponics in a closed system. The nutrients recycled from fish tanks supply nutrients for vegetables grown in hydroponics, however in some cases, the nutrient levels may not be sufficient for the optimal growth and yield of plants. In this study, two experiments were conducted to understand the effects of supplemental organic nutrient solutions on plant growth and yield in climbing perch-water spinach aquaponics. Experiment 1 (Exp.1) was conducted to evaluate the effects of three types of leaf-based organic fertilizers on the growth and yield of water spinach, namely self-extracted organic nutrient solution (OE), and two popular commercial foliar organic fertilizers, Hydro Fulvic (OF1) and TCN HUME (OF2), with the dose of 1%. Exp.1 showed that supplementation with the self-extracted solution significantly increased the growth and yield of water spinach but did not change the quality of water spinach in terms of the Brix values and nitrate residue content compared to the control. However, the self-extracted solution showed less effectiveness than the two commercial fertilizers in this experiment. Therefore, we conducted experiment 2 (Exp.2) to determine the suitable concentration and potential use of this extract for water spinach in aquaponics. The results of Exp.2 indicated that the concentration of 2% was the most economical and effective to provide supplemental nutrients for water spinach in the climbing perch-water spinach system. The study suggests that self-extracted organic nutrient solutions can be effectively used for growing water spinach in aquaponic systems.

Keywords: Aquaponics system, nutrient supplement, self-extracted organic nutrient solution, water spinach

Article Details

How to Cite
Nghia, N. T., Dinh, N., Hanh, N., & Huong, D. (2022). Supplemental Effects of Self-extracted Organic Nutrient Solution on the Growth and Yied of Water Spinach (Ipomoea Aquatic F.) in an Aquaponic System. Vietnam Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 5(3), 1519-1528.


    Ahmed A., Zulfiqar S., Ghandar A., Chen Y., Hanai M. & Theodoropoulos G. (2019). Digital twin technology for aquaponics: Towards optimizing food production with dynamic data driven application systems. In: Asian Simulation Conference. Springer Singapore: 3-14.
    Bethe L. A., Salam M. A., Fatema U. K. & Rana K.S. (2017). Effects of molasses and compost tea as foliar spray on water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) in aquaponics system. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies. 5(3): 203-207.
    Bittsanszky A., Uzinger N., Gyulai G., Mathis A., Junge R., Villarroel M. & Kőmíves T. (2016). Nutrient supply of plants in aquaponic systems. Ecocycles. 2(2): 17-20.
    Bosma R. H., Lacambra, Landstra Y., Perini C., Poujie J., Schwaner M. J. & Yin Y. (2017). The financial feasibility of producing fish and vegetables through aquaponics. Aquaculural. Engineering. 78: 146-154.
    Buzby K. M. & Lin L. S. (2014). Scaling aquaponic systems: Balancing plant uptake with fish output. Aquacultural Engineering. 63: 39-44.
    Canellas L. P., Spaccini R., Piccolo A., Dobbss L. B., Okorokova-Façanha A. L., de Araujo Santos G., Olivares F. L. & Façanha A. R. (2009). Relationships between chemical characteristics and root growth promotion of humic acids isolated from Brazilian oxisols. Soil Science. 174: 611-620.
    Cho H. K. & Koyama A. (1997). Korean natural farming: Indigenous microorganisms and vital power of crop livestock. Korean Natural Farming Publisher. p. 45-55.
    Dalsgaard J., Lund I., Thorarinsdottir R., Drengstig A., Arvonen K. & Pedersen P. B. (2013). Farming different species in RAS in Nordic countries: Current status and future perspectives. Aquacultural engineering. 53: 2-13.
    Delaide B., Goddek S., Gott J., Soyeurt H. & Jijakli M. H. (2016). Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Sucrine) growth performance in complemented aquaponic solution outperforms hydroponics. Water. 8(10): 467.
    Delaide B. (2017). A study on the mineral elements available in aquaponics, their impact on lettuce productivity and the potential improvement of their availability. PhD thesis. University of Liege. 101 pages.
    Jordan R. A., Geisenhoff L. O., Oliveira F. C. D., Santos R. C. & Martins E. A. (2018). Yield of lettuce grown in aquaponic system using different substrates. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental. 22: 27-31.
    Graber A. & Junge R. (2009). Aquaponic systems: nutrient recycling from fish wastewater by vegetable production. Desalination. 246:147-156.
    Haghighi M., Kafi M. & Fang P. (2012). Photosynthetic activity and N metabolism of lettuce as affected by humic acid. International Journal of Vegetable Science. 18: 182-189.
    MARD (2008). Decision No. 99/2008/QD-BNN promulgating the Regulation on management of safe vegetable, fruit and tea production and trading. Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (in Vietnamese).
    Mylonas V. A. & McCants C. B. (1980). Effects of humic and fulvic acids on growth of tobacco I. Root initiation and elongation. Plant Soil. 54: 485-490.
    Liang L. Y. & Chien Y. H. (2015). Effects of photosysthetic photon flux density and photoperiod on water quality and crop production in a loach (Misgurnus anguillicandatus)-nest fern (Asplenium nidus) raft aquaponics system. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation. 102: 214-222.
    Nguyen Thi Ai Nghia (2018). Determination suitable concentration of organic extracted solution for some leaf vegetable grown on recirculating hydroponic system. Vietnam National University of Agriculture Women Science conference. November 20, 2018 (In Vietnamese).
    Nguyen Thi Ngoc Dinh, Pham Tien Dung, Nguyen Hong Hanh & Tran Anh Tuan (2015). Effect of organic nutrient solution on water spinach grown in non-circulating hydroponics. Vietnam Journal of Agricultural Science. 13(4): 495-501 (In Vietnamese).
    Nuwansi K. K. T., Verma A. K., Tiwari V. K., Prakash C. & Chandrakant M. H. (2017). Standardization of the stocking density ratios of Koi carp (Cyprinus carpio var. koi): goldfish (Carassius auratus) in polyculture aquaponic recirculating system. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 17(6):1271-1278.
    Nuwansi K. K. T., Verma A. K., Rathore G., Prakash C., Chandrakant M. H. & Prabhath G. P. W. A. (2019). Utilization of phytoremediated aquaculture wastewater for production of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio var. koi) and gotukola (Centella asiatica) in an aquaponics. Aquaculture. 507: 361-369.
    Pamula O. Y. T. (2019). Optimization on survival and growth rate of African catfish (Clarias sp.) using water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) -based aquaponics system. Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation. 12(2): 716-723.
    Pham Tien Dung. (2008). IRRISTAT 4.0 tutorial. Vietnam National University of Agriculture Press (in Vietnamese).
    Rakocy J. E., Bailey D. S., Shultz K. A. & Cole W. M. (1997). Evaluation of a commercial- scale aquaponic unit for the production of tilapia and lettuce. In: Fourth International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. 1: 357-372.
    Rakocy J. E., Masser M. P. & Losordo T. M. (2006). Recirculating aquaculture tank production systems: Aquaponics- integrating fish and plant culture. Southern Region Aquaculture Center Publication. 454: 1-16.
    Roosta H. R. & Hamidpour M. (2011). Effects of foliar application of some macro-and micro-nutrients on tomato plants in aquaponic and hydroponic systems. Scientia Horticulturae. 129(3): 396-402.
    Roosta, H. R. (2014). Effects of foliar spray of K on mint, radish, parsley and coriander plants in aquaponic system. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 37(14): 2236-2254.
    Ruzzi M. & Aroca R. (2015). Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria act as biostimulants in horticulture. Scientia Horticulturae. 196: 124-134.
    Schneider O., Sereti V., Eding E. H. & Verreth J. A. J. (2005). Analysis of nutrient flows in integrated intensive aquaculture systems. Aquacultural Engineering. 32: 379-401.
    Somerville C., Cohen M., Pantanella E., Stankus A. & Lovatelli A. (2014). Small-scale aquaponic food production: integrated fish and plant farming. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper 589.
    Suhl J., Dannehl D., Kloas W., Baganz D., Jobs S., Scheibe G. & Schmidt U. (2016). Advanced aquaponics: evaluation of intensive tomato production in aquaponics vs. conventional hydroponics. Agricultural Water Management. 178: 335-344.
    Swingle H. S. (1967). Standardization of chemical analysis for water and pond muds. FAO Fisheries Report. 4(44): 397-421.
    Tyson R. V. (2007). Reconciling pH for ammonia biofiltration in a cucumber/tilapia aquaponics system using a perlite medium. PhD dissertation. University of Florida.
    Yang T. & Kim H. J. (2020). Comparisons of nitrogen and phosphorus mass balance for tomato-, basil-, and lettuce-based aquaponic and hydroponic systems. Journal of Cleaner Production. 274. p.122619.
    Yep B. & Zheng Y. (2019). Aquaponic trends and challenges – A review. Journal of Cleaner Production. 228: 1586-1599.