Integrated Agriculture-aquaculture Farming Systems in Vietnam: The Status Quo and Future Perspectives

Dang Thi Lua 1

1Research Institute for Aquaculture No. 1, Bac Ninh 222100, Vietnam; Faculty of Aquaculture, Vietnam National University of Agriculture, Hanoi 131000, Vietnam
Received: Dec 8, 2020 /
Published: Jun 18, 2021

Main Article Content

Full-Text | pdf


The integrated agriculture-aquaculture (IAA) farming system has been considered a form of diversified agriculture applied in Asia. In this paper, several IAA farming systems practiced in Vietnam are described, and their impacts are also reviewed. It is speculated that in developing countries like Vietnam, the IAA farming system should be targeted for support as a sustainable food safety model and a form of ecosystem-based technology to reduce environmental impacts, adapt to climate change, help avoid risks from market fluctuation, and increase incomes in comparison with monoculture farming.

Keywords: Agriculture, aquaculture, IAA, farming, Vietnam

Article Details

How to Cite
Lua, D. (2021). Integrated Agriculture-aquaculture Farming Systems in Vietnam: The Status Quo and Future Perspectives. Vietnam Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 4(1), 989-996.


    Agerso Y. & Petersen A. (2007). The tetracycline resistance determinant Tet 39 and the sulphonamide resistance gene sulII are common among resistant Acinetobacter spp. isolated from integrated fish farms in Thailand. Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy. 59(1): 23-27. DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkl419.
    Cagauan A. G. (1995). Overview of the potential roles of pisciculture on pest and disease control and nutrient management in rice fields. In: Symoens J. J. & Micha J. C. (Eds.). The management of integrated freshwater agro-pisciculture Ecosystems in tropical areas: 203-244. Proceedings of an International Seminar, May 16-19, 1994, Brussels, Belgium. Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA), Wageningen, Holland and the Belgian Royal Academy of Overseas Sciences (ARSOM), Brussels, Belgium.
    Cobo J. G., Dercon G. & Cadisch G. (2010). Nutrient balances in African land use systems across different spatial scales: a review of approaches, challenges and progress. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 136: 1-15.
    Dang T. T. S., Petersen A., Truong D. V., Chu H. T. T. & Dalsgaard A. (2011). Impact of medicated feed on the development of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria at integrated pig-fish farms in Vietnam. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 77(13): 4494-4498. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.02975-10.
    De Silva S. S., Nguyen T. T. T., Turchini G. M., Amarasinghe U. S. & Abery N. W. (2009). Alien species in aquaculture and biodiversity: a paradox in food production. AMBIO A Journal of the human environment. 38(1): 24–28. DOI: 10.1579/0044-7447-38.1.24.
    dela Cruz C. R., Lightfoot C., Costa-Pierce B. A., Carangal V. R. & Bimbao M. P. (1992). Rice–fish research and development in Asia. ICLARM Conference Proceedings. 24. ICLARM, Manila, Philippines. 457.
    Do Van Hoa et al. 2020. Survey on economic potential of VAC system in some northern mountainous provinces: More effort is needed. Retrieved from on May 6, 2021 (in Vietnamese).
    Edwards P. (2000). Aquaculture, poverty impacts and livelihoods. ODI Natural Resource Perspectives 56. ODI, London, United Kingdom.
    Edwards P., Pullin R. S. V. & Gartner J. A. (1988). Research and education for the development of integrated crop-livestock-fish farming systems in the tropics. ICLARM Studies and Reviews 16, International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management, Manila, Philippines. 53.
    Hai Linh (2020). Prospects of rice cum shrimp model. Journal of Vietnam Fisheries. Retrieved from on May 6, 2021 (in Vietnamese).
    Haylor G. (2003). Aquatic resources management for sustainable livelihoods of poor people: proceedings of DFID-ARM e-mail conference, June 2000, Bangkok, Thailand. Support to regional Aquatic Resources Management (STREAM). Retrieved from on May 6, 2021.
    IUCN (2018). Mangroves & markets final workshop: results and lessons learned. Retrieved from on May 18, 2018.
    Knud-Hansen C. F. (1998). Pond fertilization: ecological approach and practical applications. Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture Collaborative Research Support Program. Oregon State University. 125.
    Kwei Lin C., Teichert-Coddington D. R., Green B. W. & Veverica K. L. (1997). Fertilization regimes. In: Egna H. S. & Boyd C. E. (Eds.). Dynamics of Pond Aquaculture. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA. 73-107.
    Little D. & Muir J. (1987). A guide to integrated warm water aquaculture. Institute of Aquaculture. University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland. 238.
    Lightfoot C., Roger P. A., Cagauan A. G. & Dela Cruz C. R. 1993. Preliminary steady-state models of a wetland rice field ecosystem with and without fish. In: Christensen V. & Pauly D. (Eds.). Trophic models of aquatic ecosystems. 56-64. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 26, Manila, Philippines.
    Misui H. & Horiuchi H. (2006). Classification of VAC farming systems: A case study of Bac Son commune in the Red River delta, Vietnam. Journal of agricultural development studies (Japan). 17(2) :1-6.
    Petersen A., Andersen J. S., Kaewmak T., Somsiri T. & Dalsgaard A. (2002). Impact of integrated fish farming on antimicrobial resistance in a pond environment. Applied and environmental microbiology. 68(12): 6036-6042. DOI: 10.1128/aem.68.12.6036-6042.2002.
    Pingali P. L. (2012). Green Revolution: Impacts, limits, and the path ahead. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 109(31): 12302-12308. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0912953109.
    Phong L. T., Udo H. M. J., van Mensvoort M. E. F., Bosma R. H., Le Q. T., Dang K. N. &van der Zijpp A. J. (2008). Integrated agriculture-aquaculture systems in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: an analysis of recent trends. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Development. 4(2): 51-66.
    Phong L. T., van Dam A. A., Udo H. M. J., van Mensvoort M. E. F., Tri L. Q., Steenstra F. A. & van der Zijpp A. J. (2010). An agro-ecological evaluation of aquaculture integration into farming systems of the Mekong Delta. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 138: 232-241. DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2010.05.004.
    Phong L. T., Stoorvogel J. J. M., van Mensvoort E. F. & Udo H. M. J. (2011). Modeling the soil nutrient balance of integrated agriculture-aquaculture systems in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Nutrient Cycling Agroecosystems. 90: 33-49. DOI: 10.1007/s10705-010-9410-4.
    Phong L. T., de Boer I. J. M. & Udo H. M. J. (2011). Life cycle assessment of food production in integrated Agriculture-aquaculture systems of the Mekong Delta. Livestock Science. 139: 80-90. DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2011.03.015.
    Prein M. (2002). Integration of aquaculture into crop-animal systems in Asia. Agricultural systems. 71: 127-146. DOI: 10.1016/S0308-521X(01)00040-3.
    Rothuis A. (1998). Rice-fish culture in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: constraint analysis and adaptive research. PhD thesis, Katholieke Universiteit, Leuven, Belgium.
    Tanaka K. (1995). Transformation of rice-based cropping patterns in the Mekong delta: from intensification to diversification. Southeast Asian Studies. 33(3): 81-96. DOI: 10.20495/tak.33.3_363.
    Tiasang (2015). Model of polyculture of black tiger shrimp with tilapia saves shrimp industry. Retreved from on June 7, 2021 (In Vietnamese).
    Stoorvogel J. J. (2007). From nutrient balances towards soil organic matter dynamics. In: van der Zijpp A. J., Verreth J. A. J., Le Quang Tri, van Mensvoort M. E. F., Bosma R. H. & Beveridge M. C. M. (Eds). Van Fishponds in farming systems. Wageningen Academic Press, Wageningen: 107-124.
    VACVINA (2012). Model of VAC economic development. Retrieved from on May 6, 2021 (in Vietnamese).
    Yi Y. & Fitzsimmons K. (2004). Tilapia-shrimp polyculture in Thailand. In: Fitzsimmons K., Bolivar R. B. & Mair G. (Eds.). The 6th International symposium on tilapia in aquaculture proceedings. Manila, Philippines. Retrieved from on May 6, 2021.
    Zajdband A. D. (2011). Integrated Agri-Aquaculture Systems. In: Genetics, Biofuels and Local Farming Systems. 87-127. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-1521-9_4.