Evaluation of the Physicochemical Properties and Sensory Attributes of Yoghurt Made from Mixtures of Goat’s and Cow’s Milks

Nguyen Duc Doan 1

1Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Vietnam National University of Agriculture, Hanoi 131000, Vietnam
Received: Mar 6, 2019 /
Revised: Dec 24, 2019 /
Published: Dec 24, 2019

Main Article Content

Full-Text | pdf


The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of cow’s milk added to goat’s milk on physicochemical properties and sensory attributes of yoghurt. Yoghurts prepared from five different proportions of cow’s milk and goat’s milk were stored at 4-6ºC for 1, 7, and 14 days and then evaluated for their physicochemical (total solids, protein, pH, and acidity) and physical properties (viscosity and water holding capacity), and sensory characteristics (acceptability). The total solids of the evaluated yoghurts significantly increased, but the protein content decreased when the amount of cow’s milk increased in the mixtures of milk. The results showed that the pH value of the yoghurt made from only goat’s milk was higher, while the titratable acidity was lower than those of the yoghurts made from the mixtures of goat’s and cow’s milks. The yoghurt obtained from the mixture of milks containing 80% goat’s milk and 20% cow’s milk exhibited the highest viscosity and water holding capacity among the evaluated yoghurts. All the yoghurts received similar scores for color, odor, and texture after all periods of storage, while the highest score in terms of flavor was received for the yoghurt made from the mixture of milks containing 60% goat’s milk and 40% cow’s milk. Addition of cow’s milk to goat’s milk was shown to significantly contribute to the viscosity, water holding capacity, and flavor of the resulting yoghurts.

Keywords: Goat’s milk, cow’s milk, yoghurt, physicochemical properties, sensory properties

Article Details

How to Cite
Doan, N. (2019). Evaluation of the Physicochemical Properties and Sensory Attributes of Yoghurt Made from Mixtures of Goat’s and Cow’s Milks. Vietnam Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2(3), 426-433. https://doi.org/10.31817/10.31817/vjas.2019.2.3.03


    Amigo L. & Fontecha J. (2011). Milk | Goat Milk. In: Fuquay J. W. (Ed.). Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences (2nd ed.). San Diego: Academic Press: 484-493.
    Ardelean A. I., Otto C., Jaros D. & Rohm H. (2012). Transglutaminase treatment to improve physical properties of acid gels from enriched goat milk. Small Ruminant Research. 106(1): 47-53.
    Bruzantin F. P., Daniel J. L. P., da Silva P. P. M. & Spoto M. H. F. (2016). Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fat-free goat milk yogurt with added stabilizers and skim milk powder fortification. Journal of Dairy Science. 99(5): 3316-3324.
    Cheng L. J., Clarke P. T. & Augustin M. A. (2002). Seasonal variation in yogurt properties. Australian Journal of Dairy Technology. 57: 187-191.
    Doan D. N., Ha T. L., Hue T. K. B. & Tham T. P. (2009). Effect of whey powder supplementation on soymilk on the physical properties and sensory quality of soymilk yoghurt. Journal of Sciences and Development. 7(6): 764-771.
    Domagała J. (2009). Instrumental texture, syneresis and microstructure of yoghurts prepared from goat, cow and sheep milk. International Journal of Food Properties. 12(3): 605-615.
    Feng C., Wang B., Zhao A., Wei L., Shao Y., Wang Y., Cao B. & Zhang F. (2019). Quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of goat milk yogurt with added jujube pulp. Food Chemistry. 277: 238-245.
    Gokhan K., Harun U., Sevda K., Necati A. & Harun K. (2003). Some properties of yoghurts produced from goat milk and cow-goat milk mixtures by different fortification methods. Pakistan Journal of Biochemical Sciences. 6(23): 1936-1939.
    Gomes J. J. L., Duarte A. M., Batista A. S. M., de Figueiredo R. M. F., de Sousa E. P., de Souza E. L. & Queiroga R. d. C. R. d. E. (2013). Physicochemical and sensory properties of fermented dairy beverages made with goat's milk, cow's milk and a mixture of the two milks. LWT - Food Science and Technology. 54(1): 18-24.
    Herrero A. M. & Requena T. (2006). The effect of supplementing goats milk with whey protein concentrate on textural properties of set-type yoghurt. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 41(1): 87-92.
    ISO 6731:2010 (IDF 21:2010). Milk, cream and evaporated milk - Determination of total solids content. International Organization for Standardization.
    ISO 8968 1:2014 (IDF 20-1:2014). Milk and milk products - Determination of nitrogen content - Part 1: Kjeldahl principle and crude protein calculation. International Organization for Standardization.
    Jacob M., Nobel S., Jaros D. & Rohm H. (2011). Physical properties of acid milk gels: acidification rate significantly interacts with cross-linking and heat treatment of milk. Food Hydrocolloids. 25: 928-934.
    Küçükçetin A., Demir M., Aşci A. & Çomak E. M. (2011). Graininess and roughness of stirred yoghurt made with goat's, cow's or a mixture of goat's and cow's milk. Small Ruminant Research. 96(2): 173-177.
    Machado T. A. D. G., de Oliveira M. E. G., Campos M. I. F., de Assis P. O. A., de Souza E. L., Madruga M. S., Pacheco M. T. B., Pintado, M. M. E. & Queiroga R. d. C. R. d. E. (2017). Impact of honey on quality characteristics of goat yogurt containing probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus. LWT-Food Science and Technology. 80: 221-229.
    Martı ́ n-Diana A. B., Janer C., Peláez C. & Requena T. (2003). Development of a fermented goat's milk containing probiotic bacteria. International Dairy Journal. 13(10): 827-833.
    Masamba K. G. & Ali L. (2013). Sensory quality evaluation and acceptability determination of yogurt made from cow, goat and soy milk. African Journal of Food Science and Technology. 4(3): 44-47.
    Miocinovic J., Miloradovic Z., Josipovic M., Nedeljkovic A., Radovanovic M. & Pudja P. (2016). Rheological and textural properties of goat and cow milk set type yoghurts. International Dairy Journal. 58: 43-45.
    Nakthong S. (2012). Effect of flour on the microstructure of goat milk yoghurt. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances. 11(23): 4413-4416.
    Park Y. W. (2006). Goat milk. Chemistry and nutrition. In: Park Y. W. & Haenlein G. F. W. (Eds.). Handbook of milk of non-bovine mammals. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. 34-58.
    Parnell-Clunies E. M., Kakuda Y., Mullen K., Arnott D. R. & deMan J. M. (1986). Physical properties of yogurt: A comparison of vat versus continuous heating systems of milk. Journal of Dairy Science. 69(10): 2593-2603.
    Thu V. N. (2017). Recent research and development of dairy goat production in Vietnam. Modern Agricultural Science and Technology. 3: 38-44.
    Tribst A. A. L., Ribeiro L. R., Leite Junior B. R. d. C., de Oliveira M. M. & Cristianini M. (2018). Fermentation profile and characteristics of yoghurt manufactured from frozen sheep milk. International Dairy Journal. 78: 36-45.
    Tsioulpas A., Lewis M. J. & Grandison A. S. (2007). Effect of minerals on casein micelle stability of cows’ milk. Journal of Dairy Research. 74: 167-173.
    Turkmen N. (2017). The nutritional value and health benefits of goat milk components. In: Watson R. R., Collier R. J. & Preedy V. R. (Eds.). Nutrients in dairy and their implications on health and disease. Academic Press. 441-449.
    Vargas M., Cháfer M., Albors A., Chiralt A. & González￾Martínez C. (2008). Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of yoghurt produced from mixtures of cows' and goats' milk. International Dairy Journal. 18(12): 1146-1152.