Vol 5 No 2 (2022): Accepted Paper

Issue Information:

For Accepted but not published papers.

Volume, Number, and Year might be changed when published.

Published: 2022-04-25

Genetic divergence of cultivated rice varieties in North Vietnam for grain quality traits using D2 cluster analysis

Genetic divergence of cultivated rice varieties in North Vietnam for grain quality traits using D2 cluster ana

by Nguyen Ba Thang
Received: Sep 14, 2021 / Published: Sep 14, 2021
Abstract: The study was carried out with twenty-four genotypes of rice during the Spring season, 2020 in Hanoi, Vietnam. The rice genotypes were characterized based on ten quality parameters of milling, physical appearance and physiochemical characters using Mahalanobis D2 statistic. D2 analysis allocated the 24 genotypes into eight clusters, of which cluster I was the largest with 12 genotypes. The clustering showed the random distribution of genotypes into different clusters
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indicating that the origin and release duration were not related to the genetic diversity of grain quality. Among different traits, amylose content, length/width ratio and gel consistency were identified as topmost contributors in total divergence. Cluster I possessed a maximum intra-cluster value of 296.34 and the maximum inter-cluster distance was recorded between cluster IV and VI (2247.39) succeeded by cluster I and VI (2245.94) designing the members presented in these clusters can be exploited as potential donors in a breeding program to result good physicochemical quality traits in rice

Impacts of Climate Change on Hazelnut (Corylus avellane L.) Cultivation in Bhutan

Impacts of Climate Change on Hazelnut (Corylus avellane L.) Cultivation in Bhutan

by Arjun Nepal, Sonam Tashi, Rekha Chhetri, Tshering Dorji, Ugyen Dorji, Sunil Sapkota
Received: Sep 14, 2021 / Published: Sep 14, 2021
Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the factors contributing to the spatial distribution of European hazelnut (Corylus avellane L.) in Bhutan and determine the suitable areas for cultivation of the crop in the near future (2040-2060) and distant future (2060-2080) under different climate scenarios of RCP 2.6 and RCP 4.5 in Bhutan. The environmental layers were obtained from the WorldClim and processed in ArcGIS and R software prior to running the model in MaxENT. The multicollinearity test
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showed six bioclimatic factors and three topographical factors contributing to the distribution of European hazelnut in Bhutan. The findings have indicated that approximately 10,744.8 sq. km is potential for the crop cultivation in Bhutan, with Wangduephodrang District harboring a maximum area of 1,227.9 sq. km (11.4%) and Gasa district the least at 130 sq. km. The primary factors affecting climate suitability of European hazelnut are elevation contributing 87.9% followed by Bio3 (3.7%), BIO2 (3%) Bio1 (2.5%) and least by Bio15 and aspect at 0.1% each. The model shows that the most suitable elevation for the growth of hazelnut ranges from 1500-1900 masl. The suitability area for the crop projected under RCP 2.6 and RCP 4.5 scenarios shows a decline in the near future (2040-2060) in the southern part of the country and a slight increase in the distant future (2061-2080) in Central, Eastern, and Western Bhutan. Therefore, there is an urgent need for climate risk assessment, community-based mitigation measures, and spatial monitoring techniques on agriculture crops in Bhutan.

Reproductive Parameters and Larval Growth of Bighead Catfish (Clarias microcephalus Günther, 1864) from Wild and Cultured Broodstock StrainsFairness and Transparency in Payment for Forest Ecosystem Services Programs in Vietnam: A Community Based Evaluatio

Fairness and Transparency in Payment for Forest Ecosystem Services Programs in Vietnam: A Community Based Eval

by Cao Truong Son, Nguyen Thi Huong Giang, Nguyen Hai Nui, Tran Duc Vien, Nguyen Thanh Lam
Received: Jul 22, 2021 / Published: Jul 22, 2021
Abstract: Payment for Forest environmental services(PFES)has been widely implemented inVietnam for enhancing reforestation and conservation of natural resources.However,the fairness and transparency in the implementation ofPFES have not been given due attention.In order to gather the community's opinions about the fairness and transparences ofPFES's implementation,two cased studies of direct payment and indirect payment programs in Ba Be District, Bac Kan Province, were selected to investigate.In this
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study,the five points scale to rank the level of "Importance"and"Implementation"of eights criteria of fairness and five criteria of transparency were used.There were 167 people (29 providers and 28buyers involved in the directPFES program and 110buyers involved in the indirectPFESprogram)who participated in the evaluation process through the questionnaire.The results point out the community highly evaluated the fairness and transparences in terms of "Importance"(most of the opinions are important and very important level).Nevertheless, the "Implementation" of these criteria had lower evaluated points(mostly at a good and moderate level).In comparison, evaluation results between service providers and services buyers, the statistical analysis pointed out there was not statistically significant in terms of "Important" criteria.However,the difference between provider and buyers' evaluation regarding"Implementation"was significant,with the mean values of providers' are relatively higher than the service receivers'. In addition, the analysis also found that participants in the directPFESprogram evaluated the fairness and transparences higher than of those from the indirectPFESprogram.Finally,we state that policymakers and other stakeholders should include fairness and transparency criteria in designing the evaluation frameworkofPFESprograms in Vietnam in order to promote the more participation of people and improve the sustainabilityofPFES program.

Genetic Diversity of Chanos Chanos (Forsskål, 1775) from Natural Populations in Vietnam

Genetic Diversity of Chanos Chanos (Forsskål, 1775) from Natural Populations in Vietnam

by Vu Thi Trang, Tran Thi Thuy Ha, Tran Thi Kim Ngan, Nguyen Dinh Vinh, Pham Hong Nhat, Vu Thi Huyen
Received: Sep 14, 2021 / Published: Sep 14, 2021
Abstract: The genetic diversity of five natural populations of milkfish (Chanos chanos) collected in Nghe An, Quang Binh, Binh Dinh, Phu Yen, Khanh Hoa provinces in Vietnam was examined using COI gene sequence analysis. Twelve haplotypes were noted from a total of 50 sequences along with 12 variable sites and 6 parsimony informative sites. The Quang Binh milkfish population had the highest haplotype (0.889 ± 0.060) and nucleotide diversities (0.00301 ± 0.00049). Overall, haplotype and nucleotide
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diversities were 0.804 ± 0.036 and 0.00212 ± 0.00026, respectively. Genetic differentiation (FST) was high between the milkfish populations of Nghe An – Quang Binh (0.21744) and Nghe An – Phu Yen (0.26215). Haplotype network analysis indicated that milkfish populations shared common haplotypes and each population had its own private haplotypes. Population structure and demographic expansion were not evident for all populations except for Quang Binh. This is the first principal endeavor to understand genetic information of milkfish in Vietnam, thereby providing information for scientists, managers, and the general public to establish timely strategies to explore, protect, and develop milkfish genetic resources in the future.

The importance of socio-economic development to sustainable natural resources management in rural area: A case study of sustainable livelihoods and forest management in Xuan Nha nature reserve in Northwestern Vietnam

The importance of socio-economic development to sustainable natural resources management in rural area: A case

by Nguyen Anh Tru
Received: Sep 30, 2021 / Published: Sep 30, 2021
Abstract: Sustainable forest management is facing some threats such as deforestation and forest degradation including biodiversity loss due to socio-economic conditions, governance capacity as well as lack of public participation. In Xuan Nha nature reserve, about 50% of total population are living below the poverty level. Thus, their dependency on the forest for livelihood is high. Currently, community’s activities are creating pressures on the forest by reducing forest area, forest land degradation,
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and illegal logging. This study focused on identifying the sustainable livelihood options by using LIFE (livelihood, income, forest condition, and equity) and Sustainable Livelihood Framework to identify the most suitable livelihood practice with the purposes were to reduce poverty for local communities and their dependency on forest resource. Moreover, we used advocacy Coalition Framework for analyzing policies aiming to find suitable policies to reduce the conflict between socio-economic development and forest management. We also conducted field visits to the study area to collect primary data through discussion with government representatives and local communities. Results showed that fruit orchard and beekeeping are two suitable livelihood options for buffer areas since there are more convenient assets such as roads, market, and human knowledge while fruit orchard and local pig farming were suggested for ERA (ecological restoration area) and SPA (strictly protected area) to solve the problem of land degradation and maintain traditional habit of the local community. Regarding policy, the support for livelihood practices and improvement of community’s awareness as well as authorities’ on forest protection is necessary for all sub-areas for reducing poverty and pressures on forest resources of the community.

An Assessment of the Economic Efficiency of Swine Farms Applying BioSecurity Practices in Bac Ninh Province, Vietnam

An Assessment of the Economic Efficiency of Swine Farms Applying BioSecurity Practices in Bac Ninh Province, V

by Le Thanh Ha, Lai Phuong Thao, Nguyen Xuan Hoa, Do Quang Giam
Received: Nov 8, 2021 / Published: Nov 8, 2021
Abstract: The research focused on evaluating the economic efficiency of swine farms applying biosecurity practices in Bac Ninh Province. Our study surveyed 143 pig farms in Bac Ninh province. The ordinal logit regression model was employed to estimate the factors affecting the level of biosecurity practices. Moreover, the semi-log regression model was used to examine the influence of some factors affecting the profitability of pig farms. The results showed that biosecurity practices had a significant
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impact on the economic efficiency of livestock farms by helping livestock farms increase their economic efficiency, reducing the mortality rate of animals, and reducing the rate of abandonment of farms.  The factors affecting the level of biosecurity application on the farms included the gender, experience, and education of the farm owner, and the livestock scale. The results aslo expressed a negative relationship between the economic efficiency of the farm and seeding costs, electricity and water costs, feeding costs, labor costs, and veterinary medicine costs, and a positive relationship between the economic efficiency and selling price as well as between the livestock scale and biosecurity application. Finally, some appropriated solutions could be recommended for the improvement of the economic efficiency of swine farms applying biosecurity practices.

Using Multivariate Statistical Methods in Identifying Key Surface Water Pollutants in Dry Season in a Coastal Province, Vietnam

Using Multivariate Statistical Methods in Identifying Key Surface Water Pollutants in Dry Season in a Coastal

by Nguyen Thanh Giao, Huynh Thi Hong Nhien
Received: Sep 14, 2021 / Published: Sep 14, 2021
Abstract: This study was conducted to analyze water quality in a coastal province of Vietnam using multivariate statistical methods, namely cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Twelve parameters including pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), total suspended solids (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrite (N-NO2), nitrate (N-NO3), ammonium (N-NH4+), orthophosphate
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(P-PO43−), chloride (Cl), iron (Fe), and coliforms were collected at 10 locations in the dry season in 2020. The results showed that surface water was polluted by TSS, organic matters, nutrients, salinity, and coliforms compared to the national technical regulation on surface water quality (QCVN 08-MT: 2015/BTNMT). Cluster analysis results classified the original 10 sampling locations into 3 groups due to BOD, COD, TSS, N-NH4+, N-NO2, coliforms, and salinity. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that 3 principal components (PCs) can explain 84.5% of the variance of surface water quality parameters in the study area. Moreover, pH, TSS, DO, BOD, COD, N-NH4+, N-NO2, N-NO3-, P-PO43−, coliforms, and Cl were the key variables that influenced surface water quality in the dry season. The findings in this study can provide useful information for policymakers in developing the program of surface water quality management and protection.